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Assignment problems, a special case of transportation problem involves assigning different jobs or tasks to different persons, machines or work-stations with the sole objective of optimizing (minimizing total cost or maximizing total profit). This paper discussed a new approach for solving assignment problems alongside the existing classical Hungarian method and the revised ones assignment method. The new approach is called mean assignment method (MAM). It consist of three steps and uses the concept of mean and mean deviation. The mean gives the mid-point for each row. The farther the costs are from the mean, the higher their suitability for assignment. Furthermore, a comparative analysis was carried out to compare existing classical Hungarian method and the revised ones assignment method with the newly introduced method (mean assignment method) in terms of computation time and also to determine which method arrives at optimal solution quicker. Findings showed that the classical Hungarian method and the mean assignment method produced the optimum (minimum total cost) assignment. In addition, the mean assignment method saves computation time with just three steps of algorithm while the other two methods (Hungarian method and revised ones assignment method) take more computation time. You can get a copy here https://www.amazon.com/dp/B087Z9ZY1R/ref=mp_s_a_1_1?dchild=1&keywords=Lawrence+Ozakafe+Ezekiel&qid=1588366114&sr=8-1
John Maynard Keynes was a British economist. He was born on the 5th of June, 1883 in Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, England. His father, John Neville Keynes was an economist and a lecturer in moral science at university of Cambridge and his mother Florence Ada Keynes a local social reformer. Keynes was the first born and was followed by two more children; Margaret Neville Keynes in 1885 and Geoffery Keynes in 1887. In January 1892, at eight and a half, John Maynard Keynes started as a day pupil at St. Faith’s preparatory school. By 1894, Keynes was top of his class and excelling at mathematics. In 1897, he won a scholarship to Eton College, where he displayed talent in a wide range of subjects, particularly mathematics, classics and history. In 1902 Keynes won another scholarship to King’s College, Cambridge to read mathematics. In 1904, he received a first class Bachelor of Arts in mathematics. Keynes continued to involve himself with the university over the next two years. He took part in debates, further studied philosophy and attended economics lectures informerly as a graduate student for one term which constituted his only formal education in the subject. He studied under Alfred Marshall and Arthur Pigou. After leaving Cambridge, Keynes took a position with the civil service in Britain. However, he returned to Cambridge in 1908. Keynes accepted a lectureship in economics funded personally by Alfred Marshall. By 1909 Keynes had published his first professional economics article in the Economics Journal, about the effect of a global economic downturn on India. He founded the political economy club, a weekly discussion group. By 1911, Keynes was made the editor of The Economic Journal, a peer-reviewed academic journal of economics published on behalf of the Royal Economic Society, United Kingdom. Keynes published his first book, India Currency and Finance in 1913. He was later appointed to the Royal Commission on India currency and finance where he showed considerable talent at applying economic theory to practical problems. In January 1915, Keynes took up an official government position at the British Treasury. Among his responsibilities were the design of terms of credit between Britain and its continental allies during the war, and the acquisition of scarce currencies. In 1917, Keynes was appointed Companion of the Order of the Bath, a British order founded by George I for his wartime work. At the height of the great depression, in 1933, Keynes published The Means to Prosperity, which contained specific policy recommendations for tackling unemployment in a global recession. While it was addressed chiefly to the British government, it also contained advice for other nations affected by the global recession. During the Second World War, Keynes argued in his book ‘How to Pay for the War’, published in 1940, that the war effort should be largely financed by higher taxation and especially by compulsory, rather than deficit spending, in order to avoid inflation. In the 1944 negotiations that established the Bretton Woods System, Keynes argued for a radical system for the management of currencies. He proposed the creation of a common world unit of currency——a world central bank and the International Clearing Union which were later known as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF). Keynes died on the 21st of April, 1946 following a heart attack.
The Keynesian economics is based on the idea that, in the short run, economic output is strongly influenced by aggregate demand, most especially during recessions. The theories forming the basis of Keynesian economics were first presented by John Maynard Keynes during the great depression in his book The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money, published in 1936. Prior to the publication of Keynes’s book, mainstream economic thought held that a state of general equilibrium existed in the economy. This thought is premised on the idea that “the needs of consumers are always greater than the capacity of the producers to satisfy those needs, everything that is produced will eventually be consumed once the appropriate price is found for it”. This perception is reflected in Say’s Law (Jean Baptiste Say) and in the writing of David Ricardo. This argument rests upon the assumption that if a surplus of goods or services exists, they would naturally drop in price to the point where they would be consumed. Keynes overturned the mainstream thought of the time and brought about a greater awareness of structural inadequacies. Problems such as unemployment for example are viewed as a result of imbalances in demand. Keynes argued that because there was no guarantee that the goods that individuals produce would be met with demand; unemployment was a natural consequence especially in the instance of an economy undergoing contraction. Major contributions include; The Consumption Function, Liquidity Preference, The Concept of Investment Multiplier, The AD-AS Model, The Marginal Efficiency of Capital (MEC), Deficit Spending
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The PDH model focuses on sellers’ and buyers’ relationships. It gives a deeper insight into the forms of relationships that could exist between a seller and a buyer and also demystifies the best form of relationship that could ensure mutual benefit between a seller and a buyer.
Buyers sees it as an opportunity to get all they could at the lowest price possible.
Buyers will understand the seller and cooperate.
Buyers will flee
A pliable seller keeps a good number of loyal customers. However, such sellers hardly make significant profit. The business grow but at a slow rate. Such businesses soon become stagnant over-time and eventually dies. Customers of pliable sellers have over 50% control of the business.
Diplomatic sellers don’t have as much customers as pliable sellers, however, these sellers make more profit than the former. The business grows at a fast rate. The customers enjoy good service and become loyal over-time. The buyer and the seller have equal control and influence over the business. A diplomatic seller maintains a mutually beneficial relationship.
The hard seller’s idiosyncrasies and approach is directly opposite that of the pliable seller. He hardly keep customers because he is too harsh and mean. He has complete control of the business and never compromise. He makes little and unstable profit. The business will finally die because a hard seller can’t keep a loyal customer.